06 Maret 2008

10 DASAR PERENCANAAN DAN DESAIN PERPUSTAKAAN'' Faulkner-Brown's Ten Commandments''

oleh : Joko Sugiarto

3.1. Building aspects
Good criteria from the view point of a library building relate to the internal and
external conditions affecting the library. The internal conditions are concerned with how to
make the library space effective, efficient, and safe to the library users. Meanwhile, the
external conditions relate the library building to the external influences toward it, such
as disaster, flood, earthquake, sunlight, other surrounding building, etc. In addition,
however, it is also expected to serve an aesthetic function, reflecting its characteristics
as a library, as well as giving a certain image to the users. In connection with the two conditions above, the English architect Faulkner Brown
suggests ten qualities to create a good library building. These desirable qualities have
become popularly known as ''Faulkner-Brown's Ten Commandments'', and each should be
carefully considered during the initial stages of planning. A library should be:.1).
flexible, 2). compact, 3).accessible, 4). extendible 5). varied, 6).organised, 7).
comfortable, 8). constant in environment, 9). secure, and 10). economic. To achieve a
really functional library building. These elements must be integrated and cannot be taken
separately as they are closely related and support each other.
3.1.1. Flexible with a layout, structure and services which are easy to adapt The term 'flexibility' refers to the open-plan library where almost every
free-standing items of furniture and equipment can be moved to give service in any other
part of the building. In this case, as large an area as possible may be used for any of the
library's main functions - reader space, staff space, and stack space. In general, the
requirements of a flexible library include the provision of suitable heating, ventilation,
and lighting in all areas in order to facilitate change. Floors should be designed to carry
a live load of at least 150 lbs/ ft2 (750kg/ m2) and ceiling heights should be adequate
throughout (at least 8'4''). Using modular construction, supporting columns are placed at regular intervals, and
the number of permanent wall within the building should be kept to a minimum, preferably
confined to certain core areas containing ducts, toilets, stairs and lifts. All other walls
should be demountable. For the most part, the building should be open plan and privacy may
be achieved by carefully placing furniture and shelving and with the use of acoustic
materials on floors and ceilings . If this is done, changes may be easily be made without
having to undertake expensive structural alterations. Although the future is difficult to
predict, it is certain that greater use of available technology will have an effect on
library design. A new library must be designed to operate the materials and techniques of
the future rather than the past. Thus a high degree of adaptability is necessary.
3.1.2. Compact for ease of movement of readers, staff and books A compact library building means that there is ease of movement of readers, staff
and books within the areas of the building. There is a good traffic pattern where the users
can move from place to place with a minimum of interference. In this case, systematic and
reachable arrangement should come into consideration of the librarians. Thus, the available
library space is able to house large collections, yet it is still spacious for the users and
staff. As mentioned before, the most compact form of a building is a cube. A cube is
essentially the result of modular design, wherein the floor area is made of equal squares
(or rectangles), the structures is simple and the whole relates very well to library
functional requirements. Travel distances are reduced to a minimum, if on entry, users are
brought to the centre of gravity of the building, and the books, staff, and readers will
move shorter distances. There is also economy on the consumption of energy as the lighting
may focus in all direction at once without any hindrance .
3.1.3. Accessible from the exterior into the building and from the entrance to the all parts
of the building Ease of access to a building and its contents is an important factor. There are two
points which should be considered: access the library building from the outside and access
to the collections within the library. Both of them must be easily accessed. The approach
should be logical, convenient, and attractive, and it is the best achieved by locating the
building in a central position, thus ensuring that the journeys to the library from
different parts of the campus are as short as possible. The location must be carefully
considered in relation to the main circulation routes and to the sitting of both present and
future buildings on the campus. On entering the building, the users should immediately be
aware of the main elements, e.g. information desk, catalogues, and stairs. In brief, they
should find it easy to determine where to go and how to get there the first time they enter
the library building.
3.1.4. Extendible to permit future growth with minimum disruption The fast-growing various collections in university libraries become the major
problems with the library capacity sooner or later. It is predicted that in 10 to 15 years
the collections will be doubled. Moreover the IT era gives a new dimension which is
sometime difficult to predict. This must be anticipated by the extendible buildings for the
libraries in the future, yet without ignoring the library function at present. In general, most university library buildings world-wide are built with provision
for future expansion. This may take place vertically (upward or downward) or laterally. Not
all are ideal. It can be remembered the library is the most sensitive of all educational
buildings to the disturbances caused by building operations above an existing building which
has to remain in use during the construction period. Outline plans for future extensions
and their relationship to the original building plan should be determined at the time the
original brief is prepared, and should be used subsequently when the extension takes place.
3.1.5. Varied in its provision of reader spaces to give wide freedom of choice Variation of the library atmosphere is very important. There must various atmosphere
to cope with the need of the users having different motives and objectives in coming and
using the library. For example, they come to the library for study, writing a paper, reading
newspapers, meeting friends, browsing, and so on. To satisfy them there must be some
different locations or areas provided within the library. Though most of university library users are students, it cannot be ignored that they
may have many different preferences regarding their surroundings. Some are gregarious, while
others prefer privacy; some like a view, while other require no visual disturbance at all.
To anticipate these, providing as much varied seating accommodation as possible is helpful.
For example, carrels in alcoves for silent and more concentrated reading, face-to-face
seating accommodation which enables some discussion; comfortable seating with armchairs for
relaxing, and so on. Not only does this satisfy user needs, but it also adds colour and
interest to the interior of the library.
3.1.6. Organised to impose maximum confrontation between books and readers A library should be organised in such a way that its services and stocks are
accessible and easily available. Simplicity of layout is vitally important, and planning
should be such that there is minimum interference with the main routes through the building
of both readers and materials. In other words, a library should impose appropriate
confrontation between books and readers. Also, it must avoided the disturbance to other
certain areas, such as reading and studying areas. The more organised the library, the more
simple and easier access of the collections, printed or non-printed materials. This can only
be achieved by better organisation of the library.
3.1.7. Comfortable to promote efficiency of use The comfort of a university library, in some cases, is more important than the other
types of a library. The users, mainly students, need more time and concentration in using
the library: whether they concentrate on a literature search, doing assignments, making
project reports, or mainly for their research. Besides, the fuller collections provided
within the library, and the fact that its comfortable make the students stay longer. In
addition, this will also create a conducive environment for the library staff.. To deal with the internal environment of the library, there must be fresh air,
constant temperature and humidity that promote and encourage the efficient use of the
library. It is also necessary to provide a good level of lighting in order to be able to
make the library comfortable for both the library users and the staff. Lighting will be
discussed in detail later in this chapter. In addition, the interior of the library must be
so designed as to smoothly, comfortably, and attractively serve the needs of its users.
Measures should be taken to reduce noise as far as possible, both in term of design and
layout of the library, and in the use of internal finishes. Areas that naturally generate
noise, such as the circulation and inquiry counters, catalogues, and reference section,
should be separated from quiet study areas.
3.1.8. Constant in Environment for the preservation of library materials There are three points should be considered within a library dealing with constant
in environment: the users and staff, collections, and building. Firstly, users and staff
need a certain range of temperature, that is about 200 C to 250 C. Less or more than the
range makes it unpleasant. In addition, constant fresh air is also required. Secondly,
collection, printed and non-printed, need lower temperature than that needed by human
beings. The materials are very precious to be preserved. They need special conditions of
humidity, temperature, and light. In general, temperature of about 680 F or 200 C and
relative humidity level of 50% are considered suitable for this purpose.
3.1.9. Secure to control the user behaviour The word ''secure'' refers to security of the collections as well as safety to both
staff and users. It is important that an architect be thoroughly aware of the need for
security and safety in a library when designing its layouts. There should be one public
entrance/ exit; the staff or delivery entrances should be fitted with a card access system
or similar device; windows must be lockable, if indeed opening windows are provided;
electronic security at the exit will help to reduce book loses; and fire escapes will need
carefully attention in order that they serve their purpose yet do not provide alternative
exits from the building. Security and safety are important library elements to be cared for. These are not
only to prevent library materials from being stolen, but also to keep the staff and users
away from any danger within or outside the library building, such as fire, flood, hurricane,
earthquake, etc. In a modern library building, a security system is very crucial as more
electric wires are installed in order to provide lighting and modern equipment such as
computers, televisions, microforms, videos, etc. It frequently happens that the any
short-cut-connection may cause fire. Thus the security and safety in every library building
at least must have three objectives: for the library building itself, for the collection,
and for the staff, and the users of the library.
3.1.10. Economy to be built and maintenanced with minimum resources both in finance and
staff Building, using, and maintaining a library are identical with spending money.
Besides the library should provide with new materials, it should also spend amount of money
for maintaining the existing materials as well as providing some new requirements of the
services. Basically the library expenses can be grouped into two categories: short (initial)
and long terms (running). Short term deals with service, such as buying new materials,
stationery etc. Meanwhile long term deals with the maintenance of the library building
itself, for example, lighting, heating, cleaning, painting, carpeting, decorating, etc. It
also should be noticed that libraries with long hours of illumination and air conditioning
are expensive buildings to run, as they need more electric power. To cope with long hours of illumination and air conditions, reducing the area of
external walls and roof so that the ratio of wall area is low is very necessary in order to
reduce the amount of the lighting, heating/ cooling within the area. In addition, windows,
which allow heat to pass easily in and out of a building, should not exceed 25% of the total
wall area. Greater use of glass will result in energy loss. Fenestration in a library
building should be based on the needs of library users rather than the architect's wish to
create some external design feature. This mainly happens in temperate zones. In contrast,
however, a library in a tropical area needs wider windows, if there are no air conditioning
facilities, in order to get better air circulation. If not, the temperature inside the
building will be too hot for the users and staff to stay in. In brief, there are two cost factors involved - initial and running. Initial costs
are predictable and more fixed compared to running costs which depend on many uncontrollable
factors, and which occur throughout the life of the building. A brick or concrete wall will
cost far less in upkeep than the one that is plastered and painted. The initial expense of
heavy-duty carpeting in areas of dense traffic will prove worthwhile and require replacing
less often than using just ordinary carpeting. The financial limitations imposed on library expansion in a number of a countries
since the mid-1970s has meant that in the recent years more care has had to be taken in
designing buildings that are functional, economical, and less grandiose than in the past.
Concepts such as 'open plan' and 'flexibility' are today major considerations in most
architects' design work, and economy, both in terms of financial cost and ongoing
maintenance, is a control factor that greatly influences the final result . There are sufficient fine library buildings in existence based on 'ten commandments'
to prove their relevance and value in modern library planning, such as Nottingham University
Library, St. Andrew University Library, and Loughborough University of Technology Library,
all in the United Kingdom.

Sumber : Mata Kuliah S1 Perpustakaan Lintas Jalur UNDIP th 2007

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